Reducers be applied, to change from pipe diameter in one direction. Standard there are 2 possibilities, the concentric reducer, is usually used in vertical pipe lines, and the eccentric reducer that is used in horizontal pipe lines.
Concentric Pipe Reducer or Conical Reducer
In Concentric reducer which is also known as a conical reducer, the center of both the ends is on the same axis. It maintains the centerline elevation of the pipeline. When the center lines of the larger pipe and smaller pipe are to be maintained same, then concentric reducers are used.
In Eccentric reducer, the center of both the ends is on different axis as shown in the image. It maintains BOP (bottom of pipe) elevation of the pipeline. When one of the outside surfaces of the pipeline is to be maintained same, eccentric reducers are required.
Offset = ( Larger ID – Smaller ID) / 2